In case of PHP call by reference, actual value is modified if it is modified inside the function. In such case, you need to use & (ampersand) symbol with formal arguments. The & represents reference of the variable.

Let’s understand the concept of call by reference by the help of examples.

Example 1

In this example, variable $str is passed to the adder function where it is concatenated with ‘Call By Reference’ string. Here, printing $str variable results ‘This is Call By Reference’. It is because changes are done in the actual variable $str.


This is Call By Reference

Example 2

Let’s understand PHP call by reference concept through another example.