# PHP 5 Operators

## PHP Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

PHP divides the operators in the following groups:

- Arithmetic operators
- Assignment operators
- Comparison operators
- Increment/Decrement operators
- Logical operators
- String operators
- Array operators

## PHP Arithmetic Operators

The PHP arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

Operator | Name | Example | Result | Show it |
---|---|---|---|---|

+ | Addition | $x + $y | Sum of $x and $y | Show it » |

– | Subtraction | $x – $y | Difference of $x and $y | Show it » |

* | Multiplication | $x * $y | Product of $x and $y | Show it » |

/ | Division | $x / $y | Quotient of $x and $y | Show it » |

% | Modulus | $x % $y | Remainder of $x divided by $y | Show it » |

** | Exponentiation | $x ** $y | Result of raising $x to the $y’th power (Introduced in PHP 5.6) |

## PHP Assignment Operators

The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.

The basic assignment operator in PHP is “=”. It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

Assignment | Same as… | Description | Show it |
---|---|---|---|

x = y | x = y | The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right | Show it » |

x += y | x = x + y | Addition | Show it » |

x -= y | x = x – y | Subtraction | Show it » |

x *= y | x = x * y | Multiplication | Show it » |

x /= y | x = x / y | Division | Show it » |

x %= y | x = x % y | Modulus |

## PHP Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

Operator | Name | Example | Result | Show it |
---|---|---|---|---|

== | Equal | $x == $y | Returns true if $x is equal to $y | Show it » |

=== | Identical | $x === $y | Returns true if $x is equal to $y, and they are of the same type | Show it » |

!= | Not equal | $x != $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y | Show it » |

<> | Not equal | $x <> $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y | Show it » |

!== | Not identical | $x !== $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y, or they are not of the same type | Show it » |

> | Greater than | $x > $y | Returns true if $x is greater than $y | Show it » |

< | Less than | $x < $y | Returns true if $x is less than $y | Show it » |

>= | Greater than or equal to | $x >= $y | Returns true if $x is greater than or equal to $y | Show it » |

<= | Less than or equal to | $x <= $y | Returns true if $x is less than or equal to $y | Show it » |

## PHP Increment / Decrement Operators

The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable’s value.

The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable’s value.

Operator | Name | Description | Show it |
---|---|---|---|

++$x | Pre-increment | Increments $x by one, then returns $x | Show it » |

$x++ | Post-increment | Returns $x, then increments $x by one | Show it » |

–$x | Pre-decrement | Decrements $x by one, then returns $x | Show it » |

$x– | Post-decrement | Returns $x, then decrements $x by one | Show it » |

## PHP Logical Operators

The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

Operator | Name | Example | Result | Show it |
---|---|---|---|---|

and | And | $x and $y | True if both $x and $y are true | Show it » |

or | Or | $x or $y | True if either $x or $y is true | Show it » |

xor | Xor | $x xor $y | True if either $x or $y is true, but not both | Show it » |

&& | And | $x && $y | True if both $x and $y are true | Show it » |

|| | Or | $x || $y | True if either $x or $y is true | Show it » |

! | Not | !$x | True if $x is not true | Show it » |

## PHP String Operators

PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.

Operator | Name | Example | Result | Show it |
---|---|---|---|---|

. | Concatenation | $txt1 . $txt2 | Concatenation of $txt1 and $txt2 | Show it » |

.= | Concatenation assignment | $txt1 .= $txt2 | Appends $txt2 to $txt1 | Show it » |

## PHP Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.

Operator | Name | Example | Result | Show it |
---|---|---|---|---|

+ | Union | $x + $y | Union of $x and $y | Show it » |

== | Equality | $x == $y | Returns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs | Show it » |

=== | Identity | $x === $y | Returns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types | Show it » |

!= | Inequality | $x != $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y | Show it » |

<> | Inequality | $x <> $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y | Show it » |

!== | Non-identity | $x !== $y | Returns true if $x is not identical to $y | Show it » |

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